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C. FERREIRA In N. Nedjah, L. de M. Mourelle, A. Abraham, eds., Genetic Systems Programming: Theory and Experiences, Studies in Computational Intelligence, Vol. 13, pp. 21-56, Springer-Verlag, 2006.

Automatically Defined Functions in Gene Expression Programming

The Architecture of GEP Individuals
We know already that the main players in Gene Expression Programming are the chromosomes and the expression trees (ETs), and that the latter are the expression of the genetic information encoded in the former. As in nature, the process of information decoding is called translation. And this translation implies obviously a kind of code and a set of rules. The genetic code is very simple: a one-to-one relationship between the symbols of the chromosome and the nodes they represent in the trees. The rules are also very simple: they determine the spatial organization of nodes in the expression trees and the type of interaction between sub-ETs. Therefore, there are two languages in GEP: the language of the genes and the language of expression trees and, thanks to the simple rules that determine the structure of ETs and their interactions, we will see that it is possible to infer immediately the phenotype given the sequence of a gene, and vice versa. This means that we can choose to have a very complex program represented by its compact genome without losing any information. This unequivocal bilingual notation is called Karva language. Its details are explained in the remainder of this section.

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